Farmers and herders, known as squatters who squat on land without formal concessions owned gradually moved inland and occupied large areas of crop and pasture for grazing cattle and sheep.
Extensive grasslands, open forests and abundant wildlife exclaimed the Europeans for their pastoral opportunities that has been described as the largest Estate on Earth. The fire-stick farming had created this landscape was a complex system in the country of land management used by Aboriginal people in pre-settlement Australia.

In addition, large areas of forest and scrub (land covered by trees or low shrubs) were cleared for pasture and crop agriculture along the coast and the interior of Australia. In 1860, after 70 years of European agricultural settlement, there were 1.2 million acres (480,000 hectares) or numbers of crops and livestock had increased to 25 million head.
Science, invention and experimentation in machinery in seeds have added millions of acres to grow wheat in the low rainfall areas. For most of the 1800s, most agricultural tasks used labor, along with horses and oxen. Inventions in Australia, like the 1840 Ridley Stripper, drastically reduce labor costs collection.
The invention of the stump-jump plow in the 1870s by Richard Bowyer Smith (1837-1919) made it possible to cut large areas of mallee scrub country. The invention was adopted almost universally by the mallee lands, further expanding the scope of the crop in the country were not in culture.
Experimentation with pedigree wheat seeds by William Farrer in Cuppacumbalong in the Australian Capital Territory led to the production of wheat that was resistant to rust and flourished in the warm and dry northern lands.
Merino sheep and drought resistant crops aimed at two of the most common forms of agriculture in Australia strains – wheat and sheep farming.
The industry of sugar cane in Queensland was established in the 1860s the use of Pacific Island workers, known as Kanak. Tens of thousands of Kanakas, some of whom were abducted from their homes on the island, working under contract labor schemes in the sugar plantations. In 1906, most of the 10,000 Pacific Islanders living in Queensland were repatriated under the Workers Act 1901 Pacific Island plantations then became family farms. Then, public protection and subsidies are provided to cover the costs of white labor.
After the expulsion of the Pacific island families, newcomers from Italy and other European workers took the opportunity to work on the sugar plantations of sugarcane cutting, and worked hard to buy their own farms. Today, many producers of sugarcane in Queensland are descendants of early cane cutters. While the machinery for cutting cane was introduced in the 1940s, it was not until the 1960s that the process became almost completely mechanized.
Irrigation has been a very important in making viable culture within Australia factor. Vast irrigation systems, such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme was established to divert water in the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers, and inland areas important for agriculture. On the east coast and in the many Australian rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin have had their change or regulated by human engineering flows.
Since the 1960s, new rice and cotton industries have expanded rapidly in large properties with mechanized production. Today these industries, followed by grapes, vegetables, flowers and nursery / cut / cultivated grass are the most intensive irrigated crops.
Most irrigated land is located within the confines of the Murray-Darling basin, which covers parts of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and South Australia, and around the Australian Capital Territory. However, the total area of irrigated land, about 1.8 million hectares in 2009-10, represents less than one percent of the total land under agriculture.
Since the 1950s, international economic factors and changes in farming methods have resulted in a return of the largest farms in the mid-1800s, to be economically more viable than small. While the average farm size has increased, the number of farming families in Australia has steadily declined.
Many modern individual family farmers are struggling to make a profit and some are forced to find extra work off the farm to supplement farm income. Succession is now a matter of priority business for farmers. About a third of all farmers are women.
The Agricultural Society of Australia remains the company won Australia’s largest meat. In July 2008 had a staff of 500 and 24 cattle stations operated, consisting of more than 565,000 beef cattle. It is Australia’s oldest continuously operating company.
The challenge of technical efficiency and structural adjustment in the agricultural sector will be vital for the future of farming communities in Australia, and the ability of humankind to feed itself in the future.